Via dei serpenti (La memoria) (Italian Edition)


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The inquiry was discovered after a shootout between the Red Brigade and the Carabinieri at Robbiano di Mediglia in October The cover-up was exposed in by Giovanni Pellegrino , at the time President of the Commissione Stragi Parliamentary Committee on massacres. While the Trento group around Curcio had its main roots in the Sociology Department of the Catholic University, the Reggio Emilia group around Franceschini mostly included former members of the FGCI the Communist youth movement expelled from the parent party for their extremist views.

The first action of the RB was burning the car of Giuseppe Leoni a leader of Sit-Siemens company in Milan on 17 September , in the context of the labour unrest within the factory.

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In December, a neo-fascist coup, dubbed the Golpe Borghese , was planned by young far-right fanatics, elderly veterans of Italian Social Republic , and supported by members of the Corpo Forestale dello Stato , along with right-aligned entrepreneurs and industrialists.

The coup, called off at the last moment, was discovered by the newspaper Paese Sera , and publicly exposed three months later.

On March 26, Alessandro Floris was assassinated in Genoa by a unit of the October 22 Group , a far-left terrorist organization. An amateur photographer had taken a photo of the killer that enabled police to identify the terrorists. The group was investigated, and more members arrested. On 17 May , police officer Luigi Calabresi, a recipient of the gold medal of the Italian Republic for civil valour, was killed in Milan. Authorities initially focused on suspects in Lotta Continua ; then it was assumed that Calabresi had been killed by neo-fascist organizations, bringing about the arrest of two neo-fascist activists, Gianni Nardi and Bruno Stefano, along with German Gudrun Kiess, in They were ultimately released.

Their trial finally established their guilt in organising and carrying out the assassination. Officers of the Carabinieri were later indicted and convicted for perverting the course of justice. The neo-fascist terrorist Vinciguerra, arrested in the s for the bombing in Peteano , declared to magistrate Felice Casson that this false flag attack had been intended to force the Italian state to declare a state of emergency and to become more authoritarian.

Together, they had engineered the Peteano attack and then blamed the Red Brigades. He confessed and testified that he had been covered by a network of sympathizers in Italy and abroad who had ensured that he could escape after the attack. During a 17 May ceremony honoring Luigi Calabresi, in which the Interior Minister was present, Gianfranco Bertoli , an anarchist , threw a bomb that killed four and injured In , Bertoli was sentenced to life imprisonment: the Milan Court wrote that he was embroiled in connections with the far-right, that was a SID informant and a confidant of the Police.

In the s it was suspected that Bertoli was a member of Gladio but he denied it in an interview: in the list of Gladio members made public in , his name is missing. A magistrate investigating the assassination attempt of Mariano Rumor found that Bertoli's files were incomplete. In May , a bomb exploded during an anti-fascist demonstration in Brescia , killing eight and wounding The prosecutor had requested life sentences for Delfino, Maggi, Tramonte and Zorzi, and acquittal for lack of evidence for Pino Rauti. The four defendants were acquitted again by the appeal court in but, in , the supreme court ruled that the appeal trial would have to be held again at the appeal court of Milan for Maggi and Tramonte.

Delfino and Zorzi were definitively acquitted.


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On July 22, , the appeal court sentenced Maggi and Tramonte to life imprisonment for ordering and co-ordinating the massacre. Initially, an internal feud between neo-fascist groups was suspected, since the crime had occurred in the city of Franco Freda. However, the murder was then claimed by the Red Brigades: it was the first murder of the organization, [27] which, until then had only committed robberies, bombings and kidnappings.

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Asking what the United States US government would do in case of such a coup, Sogno wrote that he was told, "the United States would have supported any initiative tending to keep the communists out of government. An Italian Parliamentary Committee on Secret services control Copaco was created at the same time [ citation needed ]. Miceli was acquitted in In , some leaders of the Red Brigades, including Renato Curcio and Alberto Franceschini , were arrested, but new leadership continued the war against the Italian right-wing establishment with increased fervor.

There were technical conditions for ending terrorism: however, the political class was unwilling: the Italian left wing was less worried by the existence of an armed organization than by the possible abuses by the police against protesters. It did therefore ask for the disarmament of police during street demonstrations. Also in the ruling Christian Democracy , many underestimated the threat of the Red Brigades speaking of "phantom" Red Brigades , emphasizing instead that of neo-fascist groups.

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The year before, Potere Operaio had disbanded, although Autonomia Operaia carried on in its wake. Lotta Continua also dissolved in , although their magazine struggled on for several years. From the remnants of Lotta Continua and similar groups, the terror organization Prima Linea emerged.

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On 28 February, student and right activist Mikis Mantakas was killed by far-leftists during riots. He died on 29 April, after 47 days in the hospital. On 25 May, student and left activist Alberto Brasili was stabbed in Milan by neo-fascist militants.


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  • This was the first assassination conducted by Prima Linea. On 11 March, Francesco Lorusso was killed by the military police the Carabinieri in the university of Bologna. On 14 May, in Milan, activists from a far-left organization pulled out their pistols and began to shoot at the police, killing policeman Antonio Custra. This year was called the time of the "P38", referring to the Walther P38 pistol. He died thirteen days later, on November Aldo Moro was a left-leaning Christian Democrat who served several times as prime minister; before his murder, he had been trying to include the Italian Communist Party PCI , headed by Enrico Berlinguer , in the government through a deal called the Historic Compromise.

    PCI was, at the time, the largest communist party in western Europe; was mainly because of its non-extremist and pragmatic stance, its growing independence from Moscow and its eurocommunist doctrine. The PCI was especially strong in areas such as Emilia Romagna , where it had stable government positions and mature practical experience, which may have contributed to a more pragmatic approach to politics.

    The Red Brigades were fiercely opposed by the Communist Party and trade unions : a few left-wing politicians even used the condescending expression "comrades who do wrong" Compagni che sbagliano. A consequence there was the fact that the PCI did not gain executive power. Moro's assassination was followed by a large clampdown on the social movement, including the arrest of many members of Autonomia Operaia , including, Oreste Scalzone and political philosopher Antonio Negri arrested on 7 April Active armed organization grew from 2 in to 91 in and in In that year there were attacks.

    On 20 March, investigative journalist Mino Pecorelli was gunned down in his car in Rome. Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti and Mafia boss Gaetano Badalamenti were sentenced in to 24 years in prison for the murder, though the sentences were overturned the following year.

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    On 11 December, five teachers and five students of the "Valletta" Institute in Turin were shot in the legs by Prima Linea. On 2 August, a bomb killed 85 people and wounded more than in Bologna. Known as the Bologna massacre , the blast destroyed a large portion of the city's railway station.

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    This was found to be a neo-fascist bombing, mainly organized by the Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari : Francesca Mambro and Valerio Fioravanti were sentenced to life imprisonment. Ciavardini received a year prison sentence for his role in the attack. On 5 July, Giuseppe Taliercio , director of the Porto Marghera's Montedison petrochemical establishment, was killed by the Red Brigades after 47 days of kidnapping. On 3 August, Roberto Peci , an electrician, was killed by the Red Brigades after being kidnapped and held for 54 days.

    The killing was a vendetta against his brother Patrizio , a member of RB who became pentito the year before. On 17 December, James L. On 26 August, a group of Red Brigades terrorists attacked a military troop convoy, in Salerno. The terrorists escaped. On 23 December, a bomb in a train between Florence and Rome killed 17 and wounded more than Camorra's member Giuseppe Misso was sentenced to 3 years; other members of Camorra, Alfonso Galeota and Giulio Pirozzi were sentenced to 18 months, and their role in the massacre was deemed marginal.

    Abbatangelo was sentenced to 6 years. Victims' relatives asked for a tougher sentence, but lost the appeal and had to pay for judiciary expenses. It was the last murder committed by the Red Brigades : on 23 October a group of irreducibles declared, in a document, that war against the State was over.

    In the late s - early s decade , a resurgence of Red Brigades terrorism led to further assassinations. On 19 March , Marco Biagi , consultant to the Ministry of Labour, was assassinated in an attack by a group of terrorists of the Red Brigades in Bologna. On June 13, the court of Milan condemned 14 terrorists. The leader was sentenced to 15 years in jail.


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    Three suspected terrorists were found not guilty. They would be integrated into French society. The act was announced on 21 April , at the 65th Congress of the Human Rights League Ligue des droits de l'homme , LDH , stating that Italian criminals who had given up their violent pasts and had fled to France would be protected from extradition to Italy:. Italian refugees I told the Italian government that they were safe from any sanction by the means of extradition.

    Some Italian citizens accused of terrorist acts have found refuge in Brazil such as Cesare Battisti and others former members of the Armed Proletarians for Communism, a far-left militant and terrorist organization. Some Italian far-left activists found political asylum in Nicaragua , including Alessio Casimirri , who took part in the kidnapping of Aldo Moro. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A period of social and political turmoil in Italy. Aftermath of the bombing at the Bologna railway station in August which killed 85 people, the deadliest event during the Years of Lead.

    Italy mainly Northern Italy.

    Via dei serpenti (La memoria) (Italian Edition) Via dei serpenti (La memoria) (Italian Edition)
    Via dei serpenti (La memoria) (Italian Edition) Via dei serpenti (La memoria) (Italian Edition)
    Via dei serpenti (La memoria) (Italian Edition) Via dei serpenti (La memoria) (Italian Edition)
    Via dei serpenti (La memoria) (Italian Edition) Via dei serpenti (La memoria) (Italian Edition)
    Via dei serpenti (La memoria) (Italian Edition) Via dei serpenti (La memoria) (Italian Edition)
    Via dei serpenti (La memoria) (Italian Edition) Via dei serpenti (La memoria) (Italian Edition)
    Via dei serpenti (La memoria) (Italian Edition) Via dei serpenti (La memoria) (Italian Edition)
    Via dei serpenti (La memoria) (Italian Edition) Via dei serpenti (La memoria) (Italian Edition)
    Via dei serpenti (La memoria) (Italian Edition)

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